1. Introduction According to the annual Foreign Trade Statistic of the Department of Customs, trade deficit has increased by 13.55 per cent to NRs. 1,321.42 billion in the fiscal year 2018/19 compared to previous fiscal year 2017/18. The majority of the trade deficit is mainly due to import of petroleum products including LPG. In fiscal year 2017/18, Nepal has imported 370,560 MT of LPG (about 72,000 LPG cylinder per day) which is mainly used for cooking purpose1 .
If Nepal continues to depend on imported energy sources as shown in figure1, it is going to be very difficult to reduce ever increasing trade deficit of Nepal. Country needs the new energy policy which will be helpful to discourage the use of imported fuel by promoting the clean energy sources available within the country.
It is said that, if internal consumption is not increased soon, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) will have surplus electricity generation in coming years. To increase the internal consumption, switching of cooking fuel from LPG to electricity could be the easiest and fastest way which also saves billions of Nepalese Rupees (actually hard earned convertible currency of Nepal). So, it is high time to promote the use of induction cooker powered by electricity in Nepalese kitchen to save energy, save cooking time, reduce indoor pollution and above all the cost of cooking.
2. Parameters that need to be considered while finding the cost of cooking C(t) The exact cooking cost C(t) depends upon the parameters related to location, ambient conditions, energy source and types of pot used in cooking represented by functions like alpha, beta, gamma and theta as given below.
C(t) = ∫(a,b,c,q)--------------(i)
α = ∫(coordinates of location, altitude)
β = ∫(ambient temperature, humidity, air pressure, air flow)
γ = ∫(types of energy used and its thermal efficiency)
θ = ∫(types of cooking pot)
3. Experiment Recently we have conducted a simple experiment, at Center for Energy Studies (CES), Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, on cooking of 0.5 kg of rice using LPG, induction and infrared using induction friendly pressure cooker under similar ambient condition.
Though the experiment was conducted with limited resources, it has revealed that coking in induction cooker saves energy and time as well as cost by 42% as compared to LPG and infrared based cooking is more costlier than infrared based cooking as shown in Table 1.
4. Findings As figure 3 clearly indicates that shifting of cooking fuel from LPG to electricity in Nepalese kitchen is a positive step and it can save billions of rupees being spent in purchasing LPG from India. In addition to this experiment, we propose to conduct more detail experiments on cooking using different fuels, different cook stoves and cooking a complete set of Nepalese usual food.
This experiment will be helpful to answer many questions raised by general public regarding the real cooking price including the cost of different cook stoves in three geographic regions of Nepal. In addition, the proposed work will be helpful to encourage people to switch on cooking fuel from LPG to electric.
5. How Many Induction Cookers Imported so far? As per Trade Promotion Centre 425,000 Induction Cookers have been imported to Nepal as quoted by the secretary, MoEWRI, as mentioned in Karobar Newspaper dated 2076/10/14.
6. Environmental Benefits (source: ISHRAE, Dec 12, 2019, Kathmandu Conference, ishrae.in/Nepal) LPG emits 81% of CO2 per kWh produced by oil, 70% of coal, 8.8 million people are affected by Indoor Pollution world wide People spend 90% of the time inside the house/indoors 92% of the people worldwide do not breadth quality air as per WHO
7. Actions to be taken:
What is needed for making Induction based cooking (IC) a success?